Fibre Laser Marking

What is a Fibre Laser?

Fibre laser markers have a 1090 nm wavelength, making them IR (infrared) lasers. Fibre lasers can mark a wide range of materials, though they are optimised for metal marking applications. Their high output power makes them perfect for deep engraving applications as well as any marking or processing application with tight cycle time requirements.

Fibre laser markers are actually based on the same technology used for long-distance communication (optical fibres). A laser is efficiently amplified when it travels through an optical fibre, making it possible to produce a high-output fibre laser.

Fibre Laser Feature: High Power Laser Engraving

A fibre laser engraves by heating the material until a point of vaporisation, leaving an engraved marking behind. Fibre lasers have a much higher output power than conventional laser markers. As a result, they're able to perform most applications at a much faster pace. Choose a fibre laser marker when you need a fast mark or a deep engrave on metal.

What is a Hybrid Laser Marker? - Fibre and YVO4

A Hybrid laser marker is a combination of a fibre laser and a YVO4 laser. Fibre lasers are known for their high average power, which is especially important for deep engraving or tight cycle times, while maintaining a long service life. YVO4 laser markers are known for their high beam quality, peak power, and versatility when it comes to marking a wide range of materials. The KEYENCE Hybrid laser has been designed to capitalise on the strengths of both of these laser markers. The built-in oscillator (S-MOPA) provides the advantages of both technologies giving the hybrid a high average power and longer service life, while also giving it the high beam quality, peak power, and overall versatility that the YVO4 laser provides. This makes the hybrid laser marker the most versatile and well rounded laser on the market.

What is S-MOPA & Why is it Important?

Covers the advantages of conventional YVO4 laser markers and fibre laser markers (compared to the conventional KEYENCE model)

The KEYENCE S-MOPA (Solid-state Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) is a next-generation laser oscillation that combines the high quality and high intensity of YVO4 lasers with the long service life and excellent radiation characteristics of fibre lasers. One unique characteristic of the S-MOPA is its two-stage construction in which a YVO4 laser oscillator (master oscillator) is used to generate the pulse, which is then amplified by a YVO4 amplifier. This makes it possible to amplify the pulse generate by the master oscillator while maintaining the high peak power and high quality of the pulse.

Also, single-emitter pumping laser diodes - an advantage of fibre lasers - are used. This provides lower heat density than the multi-emitter laser diodes (laser diodes that have multiple light emitting surfaces in a single semiconductor chip) of solid state lasers. This enable the KEYENCE S-MOPA to have a long service life even while being a solid state laser.

Peak Power: Fibre vs. Hybrid

The main difference between the hybrid and the fibre lasers are their peak powers and their pulse widths. Peak power is the intensity of the light and pulse width is the duration of light. Hybrid lasers have the characteristic of easily creating light with a high peak and short pulse, which they get from the YVO4 technology. Fibre lasers have the characteristic of easily creating light with a low peak and long pulse. When subjecting materials to a laser, the processing results vary greatly depending on the pulse differences.

The high peak and short pulse allow the light to have a better reaction with the material with very limited heat effect. This leads to the ability to mark a wider range of materials, especially heat sensitive metals and plastics, with high contrast and much less heat effect. The low peak and long pulse leads to a lot more heat effect on the marked materials, making it much more difficult to mark plastics or heat sensitive material without burning or charring. On the other hand, the low peak and long pulse allows for deep engraving or digging into harder materials with faster cycle times than its counterpart.

Contrast Marking on White Resin

YVO4 laser

Fibre laser

Nickel-Plated Marking

YVO4 laser

Fibre laser

SUS Engraving

YVO4 laser

Fibre laser

Beam Quality: Fibre vs. Hybrid

The beam quality of a laser marker is extremely important because it can determine the energy concentration and overall effectiveness of the laser. The quality of a beam is measured with a M2 value, the closer this value is to 1 the higher the quality of the beam. This is also one of the differences between hybrid and fibre laser markers. The YVO4 oscillator in the hybrid laser generates a beam with an M2 value less than 1.3, which is significantly better than the fibre standard around 2.

The reason that this is important is the better the beam quality the more consistent the mark and the greater the depth of focus. Depth of focus is an important factor for basic performance in order to achieve and maintain marking quality. When used in combination with the Z tracking function, this also results in a very high tolerance to height deviation, one of the most common concerns or issues with laser marking in general.

Marking Versatility: All Laser Comparison

The combination of fibre technology and YVO4 technology makes the hybrid laser one of the most, if not the most, versatile lasers on the market. With S-MOPA, high peak power, short pulse duration, and high beam quality the hybrid laser can mark almost every material. Below shows the comparison of how well UV, Green, Hybrid, Fibre, and CO2 lasers mark a variety of materials.

Material Selection

Material name Hybrid Laser Marker
MD-X Series
CO2 Laser Marker
ML-Z Series
Resin EP (epoxy resin) very good good
ABS (ABS resin) very good possible
PBT very good possible
PA good good
PC (polycarbonate) good good
PP (polypropylene) good good
PE (polyethylene) good good
PET not possible very good
PPS good good
PS (polystyrene) good good
PI (polyimide) possible possible
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) good very good
Glass epoxy good good
Metal SUS (stainless steel) very good not possible
Fe (iron) very good not possible
Al (aluminium) very good not possible
Ni (nickel) good not possible
Cu (copper) good not possible
Au (gold) good not possible
Other Ceramic good good
Si (silicon) good possible
Paper good very good
Rubber very good very good
Glass not possible very good
Wood possible very good

*The evaluations for the symbols given in the table vary depending on the state and additives of the target as well as on the set conditions. Use this information as typical examples

Product Introduction

Automatic Position and Focus Correction 3-Axis Hybrid Laser Marker MD-X Series

Built-in Vision

The MD-X Series contains a camera inside the laser marking head which can automatically identify a target’s shape. The laser marker can then adjust for X, Y, and theta offsets to ensure the marking position is always correct. The marking system is even able to distinguish between parts and mark each part accordingly.

Autofocus Anywhere

The MD-X laser marker comes standard-equipped with a built-in distance sensor that enables automatic focal corrections. Eliminate manual height adjustments due to part variations in a few simple steps.

Data-Driven Analytics

The MD-X uses predictive maintenance to eliminate problems before they occur. In the unlikely event of a marking defect, the laser marker features a wide range of diagnostic tools to identify the root cause and deploy countermeasures.

Differences Between CO2 Laser and Fibre Laser

CO2 lasers and fibre lasers both use infrared range light. However, they process differently. Fibre lasers use a wavelength of 1090 nm, while CO2 lasers use 10x that—a 10600 nm wavelength. Because of the drastic difference in wavelengths, fibre and CO2 lasers are generally purposed for very different applications.

The high heat of CO2 lasers makes them optimal for processing transparent targets that don’t absorb fibre laser light. Likewise, fibre lasers process metals that do not absorb CO2 laser light.

However, these lasers are both excellent for laser cutting. Both a CO2 and fibre laser machine will excel at cutting because of their high output power.

Differences Between UV Laser and Fibre Laser

UV lasers and fibre lasers use different methods for processing; therefore, these lasers are not interchangeable. While the fibre laser uses an infrared laser with a wavelength of 1090 nm for heating materials, UV lasers use a 355 nm UV laser. Additionally, instead of traveling through a fibre, UV lasers travel through two crystals to reach the final beam point.

Because these lasers use different methods, they process completely different materials. Since the 355 nm wavelength of a UV laser is so readily absorbed, it processes material through photolytic degradation or “cold marking.” This allows for high contrast marking with little to no thermal impact on the product being marked. Because of the lack of heat stress, UV lasers are commonly used on sensitive materials like paper, plastic, resin, and cardboard. They are commonly used for marketing metals in specific industries where surface finish, depth, and material properties of products cannot be compromised.